What is Sharding Protocol?
The Sharding Protocol is a system for storing data in a distributed manner. It works by splitting a single large database into several smaller ones. This distributed database balances the network load by distributing the workload to multiple nodes. Several scalability projects are actively seeking to develop optimal designs for sharding protocols. These projects are Ethereum, Zilliqa, Apollo, and others. The Sharding Protocol can be used to help reduce the storage requirements of the client and increase the network speed.
While sharding is generally regarded as a good way to increase transaction throughput, it comes with a few drawbacks. In addition to adding complexity to applications, it reduces the convenience of having application data stored in a single location. In addition to sharding, applications can defer or avoid implementing it. Adding caches or database replicas will help alleviate the read performance problem without significantly modifying the application. Since binary blobs tend to take up a lot of space, they are isolated within applications. Additionally, full text search and tagging are best done in separate databases.
Sharding differs from Plasma and state channels. Plasma is an off-chain layer that connects to the main chain at layer two. State channels and Truebit can draw back and open from the main chain. Sharding utility programs have interfaces and a sharding manager contract. They manage the validity of shards and collations and ensure they are available for validating utilizing proof of validation protocol. A large number of people have been able to benefit from sharding, and the protocol will make this a reality for many users.